The Permanent Mold Process

Permanent mold casting is a cost effective approach to today's requirements for near net shape castings. Because of its flexibility and design freedom, permanent mold has become a basic foundry process and should be considered as a readily acceptable alternative casting method for components made from sand castings, welded assemblies, forgings, investment castings, and even complex configurations machined from bar stock.

The Permanent Mold process utilizes a metal casting die in conjunction with metal or sand cores, where applicable. The basic casting sequence is as follows: The Metal Mold is preheated prior to production to elevate the mold temperature to operable conditions. The mold, consisting of two or more parts, is then assembled and closed. Molten metal is introduced at the top of the mold with steel cores, if present, being removed shortly thereafter. After solidification, the mold is opened and the casting ejected. The mold is reassembled and the cycle repeated.

Design Data and General Information


Permanent Mold, also referred to as gravity die casting, has several advantages over other processes.

  1. IMPROVED PROPERTIES - ALLOYS: Since the molten metal is poured into a steel die, which acts like a heat sink, improved physical and mechanical properties are realized. This is due to the finer grain structure gained by the rapid solidification of the alloy. This allows for reduced section thicknesses and weight while maintaining physical strengths.

  2. DESIGN CRITERIA - Since parts are produced utilizing rigid steel dies, parts can be cast to size with excellent dimensional repeatability. This allows for holes and shapes to be cast ready for tapping and/or reaming. Insert casting is easily accommodated.

  3. WEIGHT - With parts cast to tighter tolerances, section thicknesses can be reduced as well as machining stock, allowing for reductions in secondary operations.

  4. SURFACE FINISH - Greatly improved versus a sand casting, usually 125 RMS, again due to the steel die offering a superior surface condition capable of offering a reduction in finishing operations.

ALLOYS - Aluminum Bronzes, Yellow Brasses, Silicon Brasses, Copper, and Aluminimum.

WEIGHT - 1 ounce to 20 pounds

TOLERANCES - +/- .005 possible in production on some dimensions if less than 1", +/- .010 would be a more practical tolerance and less costly to maintain. Tolerance of +/- .010 applies on dimensions 1" to 6". Dimensions greater than 6" can be held to +/- .015.

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